顶级投资人 雷·达里奥 作品《原则》16- 第二章 如何诊断问题

发现和区分“根本原因”和“直接原因”很重要。

3)诊断问题

You will be much more effective if you focus on diagnosis and design rather than jumping to solutions.

如果你专注于诊断和设计,而不是直接跳到解决方案上,你将会更有效。

It is a very common mistake for people to move directly from identifying a tough problem to a proposed solution in a nanosecond without spending the hours required to properly diagnose and design a solution. This typically yields bad decisions that don’t alleviate the problem. Diagnosing and designing are what spark strategic thinking.

人们常犯的一个错误是,发现难题就不假思索跳到解决方案了,而没有多花点时间对问题进行正确的诊断并对解决方案进行。这样通常会产生不明智的决策,解决不了问题。诊断问题与方案设计是具有战略性思维的源泉。

You must be calm and logical.

一定要冷静,保持清晰的逻辑。

Root causes, like principles, are things that manifest themselves over and over again as the deep- seated reasons behind the actions that cause problems. So you will get many everlasting dividends if you can find them and properly deal with them.

同原则一样,问题的根本原因是导致问题产生背后反复出现的深层因素。若能找到根本原因并能妥善解决,你就会得到源源不断的回报。

It is important to distinguish root causes from proximate causes. Proximate causes typically are the actions or lack of actions that lead to problems—e.g., “I missed the train because I didn’t check the train schedule.” So proximate causes are typically described via verbs. Root causes are the deeper reasons behind the proximate cause: “I didn’t check the schedule because I am forgetful”—a root cause. Root causes are typically described with adjectives, usually characteristics about what the person is like that lead them to an action or an inaction.

区分“根本原因”和“直接原因”很重要。直接原因是导致问题产生的行为或行为缺失。例如:我错过了火车是因为我没查看列车时刻表。直接原因一般是由动词描述的;根本原因是直接原因背后的深层次原因。比如,我没查看列车时刻表是因为我健忘。这才是根本原因。根本原因一般是由形容词描述的,通常是描述一个人行动或不行动的性格特点。

Identifying the real root causes of your problems is essential because you can eliminate your problems only by removing their root causes. In other words, you must understand, accept, and successfully deal with reality in order to move toward your goals.

发现问题的根本原因非常重要,消除根本原因才能真正解决问题,换句话说,只有理解、接受并顺利解决这些现实问题,才能继续朝目标前行。

Recognizing and learning from one’s mistakes and the mistakes of others who affect outcomes is critical to eliminating problems.

要认识到,从自己的错误中吸取教训,以及从对结果有影响的人的错误中吸取教训,都对消除问题十分关键。

Many problems are caused by people’s mistakes. But people often find it difficult to identify and accept their own mistakes. Sometimes it’s because they’re blind to them, but more often it’s because ego and shortsightedness make discovering their mistakes and weaknesses painful. Because people are often upset when their mistakes are pointed out to them, most people are reluctant to point out mistakes in others. As a result, an objective diagnosis of problems arising from people’s mistakes is often missing and personal evolution is stunted. (As I mentioned in the last chapter, most learning comes from making mistakes and experiencing the pain of them—e.g., putting your hand on a hot stove—and adapting.) It is at this stage that most people fail to progress. More than anything else, what differentiates people who live up to their potential from those who don’t is a willingness to look at themselves and others objectively.

很多问题源于人们犯错,但人们经常很难发现并接受自己的错误,有时是因为他们对之视而不 见,但更多时候是因为自负和缺乏远见致使发现错误与缺点会令人感到痛苦。因为被当面指出错误,大家往往会不悦,大多数人也不愿意当面指出别人的错误。从而常常错失对错误中出现的问题的客观诊断,个人进化受到阻碍。我上一章说过,大多数学习源自犯错与经历痛苦,例如,把你的手放火炉上烤,最后就形成对环境的适应。这个步骤是大多数人前功尽弃的地方。识别一个人能否开发自己潜能就在于看他能否客观看待自己和他人。

I call the pain that comes from looking at yourself and others objectively “growing pains,” because it is the pain that accompanies personal growth. No pain, no gain. Of course, anyone who really understands that no one is perfect and that these discoveries are essential for personal growth finds that these discoveries elicit “growing pleasures.” But it seems to be in our nature to overly focus on short-term gratification rather than long-term satisfaction—on first-order rather than second- or third-order consequences—so the connection between this behavior and the rewards it brings doesn’t come naturally. However, if you can make this connection, such moments will begin to elicit pleasure rather than pain. It is similar to how exercise eventually becomes pleasurable for people who hardwire the connection between exercise and its benefits.

客观审视自己或他人带来的痛苦我称为“成长的痛苦”,因为这种痛苦是伴随个人成长的。没有痛苦就没有收获。当有人真正理解世上无完人,对错误的发现对个人成长是至关重要的,就会明白这些发现带来的“成长的喜悦”。我们的天性使然,似乎会更多的关注短期愉悦度,而不关注长期满意度,更关注一级效应,而不考虑二、三级效应。所以没有在(发现错误)这种行为和它的回报之间建立自然的联系,其实只要你建立这种关联,就能引出愉悦而非痛苦,这好比健身者将运动和健身益处直接关联,锻炼最终变成一件乐事。

Remember that:

记住:

Pain + Reflection = Progress

痛苦+反思=进步

Much as you might wish this were not so, this is a reality that you should just accept and deal with. There is no getting around the fact that achieving success requires getting at the root causes of all important problems, and people’s mistakes and weaknesses are sometimes the root causes. So to be successful, you must be willing to look at your own behavior and the behavior of others as possible causes of problems.

尽管这可能与你期望的不一样,但这就是你必须接受和应对的现实。无法回避的现实是,想成 功,就要找出所有主要问题的根本原因,人们犯的错和缺点有时就能从中找到根本原因。所以要想成功,一定要愿意观察自身和他人的行为,这些可能是产生问题的原因。

Of course, some problems aren’t caused by people making mistakes. For example, if
lightning strikes, it causes problems that have nothing to do with human error. All problems need to be well-diagnosed before you decide what to do about them.

当然,有些问题不是因为人们犯错导致的,例如闪电产生的问题和人为过错无关,所有问题需仔细诊断后再决定如何应对。

The most important qualities for successfully diagnosing problems are logic, the ability to see multiple possibilities, and the willingness to touch people’s nerves to overcome the ego barriers that stand in the way of truth.

成功诊断问题所需的主要特质包括:逻辑、发现多重可能性的能力、愿意帮助他人克服追寻真理时自我设障的情绪。

For a more detailed explanation of diagnosing problems, please read My Management Principles.

想要了解更多关于诊断问题的内容,可以阅读第三章,我的管理原则。

• In diagnosing problems, how willing are you to “touch the nerve” (i.e., discuss your and others possible mistakes and weaknesses with them)?

诊断问题时,你敢不敢触碰敏感问题?(和他们讨论自己或他人可能的错误和缺点)

• Are you willing to get at root causes, like what people are like?

你愿意探寻根本原因吗?比如去了解人们的真实情况?

• Are you good at seeing the patterns and synthesizing them into diagnoses of root causes?

你善于扮演观察者的角色,并融入到根本原因的诊断中去吗?

原创文章,作者:创业百花谷,如若转载,请注明出处:https://www.liuwanlan.com/tools/1232