顶级投资人 雷·达里奥 作品《原则》15- 第二章 如何发现问题

只要紧盯你的问题,这些问题基本都会减少或消失。

2) Identifying and Not Tolerating Problems

2)发现问题,对问题零容忍

After you set your goals, you must come up with a plan or a design to achieve them and then you must execute that plan by doing the tasks. On the way to achieving your goals and executing your design, you will encounter problems that have to be diagnosed, so that the design can be modified to get around these obstacles. That’ s why you need to identify and not tolerate problems.

设定目标后,你得设计出一套方案来实现目标,并且要实施方案里的各项任务。在实现目标、实施方案的过程中,你会碰到问题,需要诊断问题进而完善设计方案以避免这些阻碍。所以要发现问题,并对问题零容忍。

Most problems are potential improvements screaming at you.

大多数问题都是在告诉你潜在的改善机会。

Whenever a problem surfaces, you have in front of you an opportunity to improve. The more painful the problem, the louder it is screaming. In order to be successful, you have to 1) perceive problems and 2) not tolerate them.

一旦有问题出现,摆在你面前的就是一个提升的良机。问题越棘手,带来的反应越大,要想成功,你得 1)发现问题;2)对问题零容忍。

Though I’ve said it before, it’s worth saying again: I understand that recognizing harsh realities can be extremely painful. But I’ve learned that if you can stare hard at your problems, they almost always shrink or disappear, because you almost always find a better way of dealing with them than if you don’t face them head on. The more difficult the problem, the more important it is that you stare at it and deal with it. After seeing how effectively facing reality – especially your problems, mistakes and weaknesses – works, you will become comfortable with it and won’t want to operate any other way. I also believe that one of the best ways of getting at truth is reflecting with others who have opposing views and who share your interest in finding the truth rather than being proven right.

虽然说过,但有必要再强调下:我明白,认识严酷的现实会非常痛苦。但我也发现,只要紧盯你的问题,这些问题基本都会减少或消失,因为比起躲避这些问题,你已经找到了更好的解决办法了。问题越困难,越是需要对其紧抓不放。当你看到面对现实是这样的有效,尤其是面对自己的问题,错误和弱点,你就会变得越发从容应对,到时候都不会想用其他方法面对了。我也相信,获得真相的最佳途径是同他人一起反思,尤其是当对方持有相反的观点时, 或与你一样乐于去寻找真相而不是坐等事实被别人证明。

If you don’t identify your problems, you won’t solve them, so you won’t move forward toward achieving your goals. As a result, it is essential to bring problems to the surface.

若不能发现问题,你就无法解决问题,也就不能前行实现目标。所以,让问题显现出来十分关 键。

Most people don’t like to do this. But most successful people know that they have to do this.

大多数人不爱这么做,但大多数成功人士知道他们必须这样做。

The most common reasons people don’t successfully identify their problems are generally rooted either in a lack of will or in a lack of talent or skill:

人们不能很好地发现自身问题,主要是源于缺少意愿、天赋或技能:

• They can be “harsh realities” that are unpleasant to look at, so people often subconsciously put them “out of sight” so they will be “out of mind.”

直面“严酷的现实”令人不悦,人们会下意识选择忽略,不去想它。

• Thinking about problems that are difficult to solve can produce anxiety that stands in the way of progress.

思考棘手的问题,可能产生阻碍进步的焦虑。

• People often worry more about appearing to not have problems than about achieving their desired results, and therefore avoid recognizing that their own mistakes and/or weaknesses are causing the problems. This aversion to seeing one’s own mistakes and weaknesses typically occurs because they’re viewed as deficiencies you’re stuck with rather than as essential parts of the personal evolution process.

人们常常更担心表面上是否看起来有问题,而不担心能否实现预期目标,因此就回避自身可能产生问题的错误或弱点。这种对自身错误的反感非常普遍,因为人们认为犯错是一种缺陷,而没有把犯错当做个人进化过程中的重要一环。

• Sometimes people are simply not perceptive enough to see the problems.

有时人们就是单纯地缺乏看到问题的洞察力。

• Some people are unable to distinguish big problems from small ones. Since nothing is perfect, it is possible to identify an infinite number of problems everywhere. If you are unable to distinguish the big problems from the little ones, you can’t “successfully” (i.e., in a practical way) identify problems.

有人不会区分大问题和小问题。世上没有完美的事情,每个地方都可能发现数不完的问题,要不能从这一堆问题中分辨出大问题,实际上是不能顺利发现问题的。

Remember, you don’t have to be good at any of the five steps (in this case, identifying problems) to be successful if you get help from others. So push through the pain of facing your problems, knowing you will end up in a much better place.

记住,如果能从别人那里获得帮助,五大步骤你不必样样精通(这里就是说发现问题的能力)。所以只要直面问题,经受住痛苦,相信自己就会有好得多的结果。

When identifying problems, it is important to remain centered and logical.

发现问题时,重要的是保持聚焦和逻辑性。

While it can be tempting to react emotionally to problems and seek sympathy or blame others, this accomplishes nothing. Whatever the reasons, you have to get over the impediments to succeed. Remember that the pains you are feeling are “growing pains” that will test your character and reward you if you push through them. Try to look at your problems as a detached observer would. Remember that identifying problems is like finding gems embedded in puzzles; if you solve the puzzles you will get the gems that will make your life much better. Doing this continuously will lead to your rapid evolution. So, if you’re logical, you really should get excited about finding problems because identifying them will bring you closer to your goals.

面对问题时采取情绪化的做法,比如寻求同情或斥责他人,是毫无用处的。无论是什么原因, 要想成功就要越过障碍。记住,你所体验的痛苦是“成长的痛苦”,会锻炼你的性格,经受住了考验就能获得回报。尝试以置身事外的观察者身份看待自己的问题。记住,发现问题就像是搜寻谜阵里镶嵌的宝石,解开了谜阵,就能获得宝石,让人生变得更好。持续这样做,会加速你的进化过程。如果你是一个逻辑性强的人,那你应该很乐于寻找问题,因为发现问题会让你更接近目标。

This is typically because they let their emotions control their behavior and/or they haven’t learned how to deal with their problems e.g., the amygdala is “hijacking” decision-making away from the pre-frontal cortex.

一般这样是因为个人情绪控制了他们的行为,他们还没学会如何解决问题,比如:大脑的杏仁体把决策行为从前额叶皮层那抢了过去。

• How good are you at perceiving problems?

你擅于察觉问题吗?

• How confident are you that your assessment of your ability to perceive problems is right?

你对自己感知问题的能力有多自信呢?

• If you are confident of your self-assessment, why should you be confident (e.g. because you have a demonstrated track-record, because many believable people have told you, etc)?

如果你对自我评估很有信心,是什么原因呢(例如过去有过辉煌的记录,或值 得信赖之人告诉过你等等)?

• Be very precise in specifying your problems.

要精确地描述出你自己的问题。

It is essential to identify your problems with precision, for different problems have different solutions. For example, if your impediments are due largely to issues of will—to your unwillingness to confront what is really happening—you have to strengthen your will, for example by starting small and building up your confidence.

要精准地发现问题,这很关键,因为不同的问题有不同的解决办法。例如,如果你的障碍主要来自于意愿,不愿意直面现实。那你需要增强意愿,从小事开始建立信心。

If your problems are related to lack of skill or innate talent, the most powerful antidote is to have others point things out to you and objectively consider whether what they identify is true. Problems due to inadequate skill might then be solved with training, whereas those arising from innate weaknesses might be overcome with assistance or role changes. It doesn’t matter which is the case; it only matters that the true cause is identified and appropriately addressed.

如果你的问题是缺少技能或天赋,克服问题的良方就是让别人当你的面指出来,客观思考他们说的是不是正确的。能力不足就加强训练,天生的缺点可能需要帮助或改变角色。无论是什么情况,找到真正的原因并做相应的化解是最重要的。

There are also other antidotes that we will delve into in the next book.

对此还有别的良方,下一本书里我再做探讨。

The more precise you are, the easier it will be to come up with accurate diagnoses and successful solutions. For example, rather than saying something like “People don’t like me,” it is better to specify which people don’t like you and under what circumstances.

问题发现的越准确,越容易对问题进行诊断和提供有效的解决方案。例如,与其说“大家不喜欢我”,不如具体一点,说说谁不喜欢你,在什么情况下不喜欢你。

Don’t confuse problems with causes.

不要混淆问题和原因。

“I can’t get enough sleep” is not a problem; it is a cause of some problem. What exactly is that problem? To avoid confusing the problem with its causes, try to identify the suboptimal outcome, e.g., “I am performing badly in my job because I am tired.”

“我睡眠不足”不是一个问题,这个是一些问题的原因。问题实际上是什么?要避免混淆问题与原因,尝试分辨不满意的结果,比如说:我工作表现不好是因为我太累了。

Once you identify your problems, you must not tolerate them.

一旦发现了自身的问题,必须采取零容忍的态度。

Tolerating problems has the same result as not identifying them (i.e., both stand in the way of getting past the problem), but the root causes are different. Tolerating problems might be due to not thinking that they can be solved, or not caring enough about solving them. People who tolerate problems are the worse off because, without the motivation to move on, they cannot succeed. In other words, if you are motivated, you can succeed even if you don’t have the abilities (i.e., talents and skills) because you can get the help from others. But if you’re not motivated to succeed, if you don’t have the will to succeed, the situation is hopeless.

容忍问题带来的后果,和不发现它们一样,都会阻碍问题的解决。但两者的根本原因是不一样 的,容忍问题可能是认为这些问题无法解决,或者不在乎能否解决。容忍问题的人会更为糟糕,因为这是缺乏前进动力的表现,是不会成功的。换句话说,只要你有想成功的动力,就算没有能力、天资、技能,你也能成功,因为你可以从别人那获得帮助。但你要是连想成功的积极性都没有,没有成功的意愿,那是毫无希望的。

Not caring to solve problems often occurs when the expected reward is less than the expected cost. For example, when someone is working toward someone else’s goals without being appropriately supervised, rewarded or punished.

如果解决问题的回报低于解决成本,人们也会不在乎是否能解决问题。例如,一个人为实现另一个人的目标而工作,但没有监管和奖惩的时候。

* How much do you tolerate problems?

你容忍问题的程度怎样?

• How confident are you that your assessment of how much you tolerate problems is right?

你对自己容忍问题的评估有多大的信心?

If you are confident of your self-assessment, why should you be confident (e.g. because you have a demonstrated track-record, because many believable people have told you, etc)?

如果你对自我评估很有信心,为什么?是因为你有过往业绩,或值得信赖之人这样评价过你?

People who are good at this step—identifying and not tolerating problems—tend to have strong abilities to perceive and synthesize a clear and accurate picture, as well as demonstrate a fierce intolerance of badness (regardless of the severity).

擅于发现问题并对问题零容忍的人,会有很强的洞察力,擅于构思清晰准确的方 案,也说明他们不能忍受任何不良情况(不管多严重)。

Remember that you need to do each step independently from the other steps before moving on.

记住,每一步都要单独完成后再进入其他步骤。

Can you comfortably identify your problems without thinking about how to solve them? It is a good exercise to just make a list of them, without possible solutions. Only after you have created a clear picture of your problems should you go to the next step.

你能在不思考怎么解决的情况下轻松地发现你的问题吗?列个清单,不写解决方案,这是个不错的练习方式。当你对自己的问题有了清晰的认识后,再进入到下一个步骤。

For a more detailed explanation of identifying and not tolerating problems, please
read My Management Principles.

想要了解更多关于发现问题与对问题零容忍的内容,可以阅读第三章,我的管理原则。

原创文章,作者:创业百花谷,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.liuwanlan.com/tools/1230

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